Pendulum appliance devised by James J. Hilgers in 1992 is an iconic orthodontic device for maxillary molar distalization which did not relied on patient's compliance. Before the pendulum appliance, orthodontists had several tools for maxillary molar distalization such as removable active plates and headgears which required patient's compliance. These compliance-dependent appliances worked well and is still a good remedy. Recent social changes have made it difficult for doctors to be accepted by patients as authoritative as before, and for children's growth environments has changed so much (children are too busy with their schedules!) to expect cooperation as before, the need of non-compliance device is becoming more and more. The effectiveness and efficiency of pendulum appliance have been investigated and evaluated in numerous studies, and orthodontists are well aware of the side effects and limitations of the pendulum appliance.
With the advent of the skeletal anchorages in the clinical orthodontic field, the attempts of combining various conventional orthodontic appliance with skeletal anchorages have been reported. The pendulum appliance was no exception, so several modified designs with skeletal anchorages were reported.
In this presentation, the past and present of the pendulum appliance will be reviewed and new application with skeletal anchorages will be discussed.
- Review of the literatures on pendulum appliance
- Pendulum appliance with skeletal anchorages